Cyber Security Expo
Presenting Security to Management and the Business by Charles Hornat on 30/03/03


Presenting security to management is something all security managers must do. In addition they must be prepared to overcome any and all obstacles and conceptions management may have. Below are several key notes that one must remember when presenting any security topic to management.

Security Pie

Figure 1:Security Pie

In the example above is a method that is used to demonstrate what makes up security. Compare the parts of security to an equilateral triangle. An equilateral triangle has three equal sides with three equal angles. Technology represents all the tools that security engineers use to monitor, audit, and enforce the Processes and People. The People use the technology and are guided by the process. The Process is the security implementation (e.g. policies and procedures) that security engineers put in place.

Only when all three are viewed in this form, will the security of the organization be complete and risk will be mitigated to the fullest potential.

Business relations

When presenting security, always relate security to the Business!!! Security exists for the business and without the business, we wouldn’t need security. Security protects the business and Effective security reduces risk to the business. This ideology will help your business partners understand what you’re relaying to them, in a language they will understand. Remember, the goal of security in business is to help ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data and resources.

The Scale of Security

It helps to give examples of levels of security on a scale (perhaps a fruit scale). On one hand you have no security, the left hand side of the scale, with operating systems and applications installed out of box and not maintained or adjusted with security in mind. The other side of the scale, the right hand side, is a locked down infrastructure with no access to anyone and everything is locked down to the point it becomes unusable to the business (but at least it’s secure!). As a security administrator, it is important that you find a happy medium on that scale. A good example of that is demonstrated in Figure 2 below. This slide was taken from a presentation from Data from Dr. William M. Hancock, Exodus, A Cable and Wireless Service.

Figure 2: Scale of Security

Management questions

Management has several questions that must be asked. When presenting security to management, the following questions should be answered in the presentation.

  • What should we do?
  • How much should we do?
  • Why should we do it?


When developing a security policy, all employees in the organization are a part of it. It should offer guidance to all levels of staff. In addition to this, it is important to keep the following points in mind when developing or presenting security to offer guidance and points that should not be forgotten.

One day, an employee called me with great concern. It seems that the company we worked for changed the authentication process to access their employee benefits that they have. The authentication now required the users Intranet ID. The user exclaimed: “I have told many people what my intranet authentication is, and I have it written down on my desk.” I proceeded to explain that they are responsible for their authentication credentials. The user explained that they did not know this. Something that seemed to basic, was not made clear to the user. Therefore, it is important to remind everyone that they own it and are responsible for it.

  • Everyone owns it
  • Everyone must use it or it won’t work
  • Not everyone wants it
  • Nobody wants to be responsible for it
  • Everyone is accountable


The following are bullet points that should be used in any presentation on security. They are common knowledge to security staff, but are often not recognized or forgotten by management. The last point is something I find I tell my Engineers all the time as they look for a “Stamp of Security”. I simply explain that I can help determine an acceptable level of risk with the business.

  • You are never 100% secure
  • Mitigation is acceptable risks : Acceptable risk is defined by the business
  • Security is a process, not a product
  • Technology alone is not the answer
  • You never achieve Security (or a secure state)

Security Process

There are 3 parts to security: People, Process and technology. The point is focused on the processes of security. First, remember that processes are more important than technology. For example, the password security is a good example of this. There are settings in a Microsoft Active Directory that require a complex password that must meet a certain number of characters. Even with such technologies, it is easy for users to continue to use non-complex passwords, or easily guessable passwords. Adding a process like an educational class that instructs users on creating complex passwords would considerably increase the security of the organization.

Technology should support the processes. Using the password example above, after educating users, the technology staff can use the settings in AD to help enforce a more complex choice. The implementation of security is as important as the technology.


There are constant changes in the people, security and technology today. These changes bring new vulnerabilities. The new vulnerabilities bring new risks. New risks bring new mitigation methods. At a SANS course, it was taught that security is complex, technology is complex. Therefore, in this complex environment, we should keep it simple.

Additionally, with all the changes, it is very important that security staff continue to do their best to keep up with current technologies, risks, and vulnerabilities.

Recurring themes

There are many recurring themes, or “Catch Phrases” that are repeated over and over when discussing security. I have listed several that I have heard often.

  • Defense in Depth
  • Least privileged
  • Security stance (allow/deny)
  • Risk management
  • Acceptable risk

Additional Resources

  • SANS offers a class for Information Security Officers. One section of the class focuses on this very topic. In addition, a perspective from different people in the organization is outlined.

  • Computer Security. Matt Bishop. Published by Addison-Wesley. 2003

  • A presentation by Matt Tolbert ( gives a good example of how Business processes are complex, Application architectures are Extensive, and IT infrastructures are non-trivial. With all that in mind, the risks of exposure to security vulnerabilities are greater than ever. The complexity Matt refers to gives a prime reason as to why security should be kept simple
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